New eBook of John White's Rare & Beautiful 1845 Masterpiece.

RURAL ARCHITECTURE:
house plans.house plans.house plans.
ILLUSTRATED IN
A NEW SERIES OF DESIGNS
FOR
ORNAMENTAL COTTAGES AND VILLAS,
EXEMPLIFIED BY
Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Details.

BY
JOHN WHITE,
ARCHITECT.

Originally published in Glasgow, 1845,
by JOHN WHITE, 6, South Hanover Street.
PDF (Adobe Reader), 2000-2006, by Merrymeeting Archives LLC.
155 e-pages, with 90 full pages of illustration.

ILLUSTRATIONS:

Designs for Villas in the Gothic Style, suitable for a gentleman of moderate fortune:
Plan of Sunk Floor and Front Elevation - Plan of Ground Floor and Front Elevation - Plan of Chamber Floor and Back Elevation - Section and Plan of Roof - The Plan of Roof - Details of Barge Boards and Cornices - Detail of Oriel Window - Base, Surbase, and Door Finishing.

Designs for Two Small Cottages in the Gothic Style:
Ground Plan - Front Elevation - Section.

Plans for a Small Cottage, after the Italian style:
Ground Plan - Front Elevation - Section.

Designs for a Villa in the Gothic Style, which would accomodate a genteel family:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and End Elevation - End Elevation - Section and Plan of Roof - Plan of Roof - Details of Front Door-way and Recess in Dining-room.

Designs for a Villa, after the Grecian style of architecture:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Back Elevation - Back Elevation - Section and Details - Details - Grecian-Ionic Order and Details - Details - Grecian-Ionic Capital.

Designs for a Cottage in the Gothic Style:
Ground Plan - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor - End Elevation - Section - Plan of Roof.

Designs for a Villa in the Gothic Style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Back Elevation - Back Elevation - Details - Plan of Roof - Details of Library - Section and Details - Details.

Designs for a Villa in the Italian Style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Flank Elevation - Flank Elevation - Section and Plan of Roof - Plan of Roof - Details.

Designs for a Double Cottage:
Principle Elevation - Plan of Chamber Floor - Plan of Roof - Ground Plan.

Designs for a Villa, after the Grecian Doric style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and End Elevation - End Elevation - Section and Details - Details - Grecian Doric Order and Details.

Designs for a Villa, after the Gothic Style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Flank Elevation - Flank Elevation - Section and Plan of Roof - Plan of Roof - Details - Details.

Designs for a Villa, after the Castellated Gothic Style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Back Elevation - Back Elevation.

Designs for a Villa, which would be very well adapted for a suburban situation, or small country seat:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and End Elevation - End Elevation - Plan of Roof and Section - Section - Details - Base, Surbase, and Door Finishing.

Designs for Two Small Cottages in the Grecian Style:
The Ground Plan - Front Elevation - Transverse Section.

Plans for a Cottage in the Gothic Style:
The Ground Plan - Front Elevation - Section.

Designs for a Villa, affording accommodation suitable for a gentleman of moderate fortune:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Flank Elevation - FlElevation - Section and Plan of Roof - Plan of Roof - Details.

Designs for a Villa in the Gothic Style:
Ground Plan and Front Elevation - Front Elevation - Chamber Floor and Flank Elevation - Flank Elevation - Section and Plan of roof.

Designs for a mansion in the Castellated Gothic Style:
Ground Plan - Chamber Floor - Front Elevation - Back Elevation - Section - Details - Details.

Designs for an Entrance and Lodges in the Elizabethan style:
Ground Plan - Ground Plan of the Lodges - Elevation of the Gateways - Front Elevation - End Elevation - Section - Plan of Roof - Details - Details.

Designs for a Villa:
Ground Plan - Chamber-floor - Front Elevation - Flank Elevation - Sections.

Lodges and Entrance to a Mansion:
Ground Plan of the Piers and Gateways - Ground Plans of the Lodges - Elevation of the Gateways - Front Elevation - Flank Elevation - Section - Plan of Roof.

Designs for a Mansion:
Ground Plan - Plan of Chamber Floor - Front Elevation - Section - Elevation of Porch - Vases - Details - Details - Details - Bookcase - Geometrical Lines for Roofs - Roofs - Domes - Cornice and Pendentive Bracketing - Pendentive Bracketing - Stairs - Mouldings - Friezes - Cornices - Brackets - Bosses - Bosses - Plan of Ceiling - Plan of Ceiling - Chimney-Pieces - Chimney-Pieces.

Villa in the Gothic Style, 1845.
Part I: Ground Plan and Front Elevation.

In selecting the style of architecture most suitable for Villas, particular attention should be paid to the scenery of the locality in which the edifice is to be erected, as each style of architecture has peculiar charms of its own, the beauties of which will be shown to more advantage when placed in accordance with the characteristic appearance of the site. If the locality be elevated or rocky, it is the best adapted for Gothic, particularly that which is castellated and of irregular outline. But where the situation is rich and less picturesque, it will harmonize better with that style of Gothic represented in the... Plates:

Book Plate XIX, GROUND PLAN AND FRONT ELEVATION, shown here. Book Plates with descriptions also in book: Chamber Floor and Back Elevation; Details; Plan of Roof; Details of Library; and Section and Details.


GROUND PLAN AND FRONT ELEVATION.- The space marked A, on the ground Plan, represents the Drawing-room, 28 feet 9 inches long, by 23 feet wide in the centre, and 19 feet 9 inches wide at each end; height of ceiling 15 feet 3 inches to the bottom of the pannels. B, Dining Room, 22 feet 6 inches, by 18 feet, exclusive of the bay, 10 feet by 4 feet; height 15 feet 3 inches to the bottom of the pannels. C, Library, 19 feet 6 inches, by 18 feet, exclusive of the bay, 10 feet by 4 feet; height 15 feet 3 inches. D, Ante-room, 13 feet 3 inches, by 12 feet 2 inches; height 15 feet. E, Parlour, 14 feet 10 inches, by 12 feet 2 inches; height 15 feet. F, Stewards' Room, 11 feet by 9 feet; there may be an intersole placed over this and the waiting-room, for a store room. G, Waiting-room, 8 feet, by 5 feet 9 inches. H, Kitchen, 19 feet, by 13 feet 10 inches; height of ceiling 12 feet. K, Scullery, 9 feet 9 inches, by 8 feet 6 inches; height 12 feet. L, Larder, 10 feet, by 7 feet 9 inches; and 12 feet high. M, Water-Closet, 9 feet 4 inches, by 6 feet 3 inches; height 15 feet. N, Vestibule, 10 feet 9 inches square; height 15 feet, in the centre of the groined ceiling, lighted from two small windows or side lights, one on each side of the door, and also a fanlight over the door. O, Passage, from the staircase to the dining-room, 12 feet 9 inches long, by 7 feet wide; height of ceiling 15 feet. P, Passage, from the staircase to the Library, 15 feet 4 inches long, by 7 feet wide; height 15 feet. R, Passage, communicating with the kitchen and other back apartments, 29 feet long, by 4 feet 9 inches wide, and 12 feet high. S, Principal Staircase, 21 feet, by 13 feet; length of the steps 4 feet 4 inches, rise nearly 6½ inches, breadth of tread 11½ inches. T, Back Staircase, 10 feet 4 inches, by 7 feet 10 inches; length of the flyers 3 feet 6 inches, rise 7¼ inches, breadth of tread 9¾ inches. The stair leading to the cellars and other apartments on the sunk floor will also be in this staircase. U, Porch, 9 feet 9 inches by 7 feet 3 inches, ascended by 3 steps; length of tread 6 feet, breadth 12 inches, and risers 6 inches, height 13 feet 6 inches, in the centre of the groined ceiling. The Porch, Vestibule, Staircases, and Passages, should be paved with stone.

FRONT ELEVATION.- The whole extent of the Front Elevation is 89 feet 6 inches, divided into five compartments; the centre compartment behind the porch is finished with a gable top, terminating with a pinnacle; the height from the ground to the gable top is 39 feet 6 inches, and to the top of the pinnacle 43 feet 6 inches, its breadth being 10 feet 6 inches; and the compartment on each side of the centre is finished with a gable top, terminating with a pinnacle, and also small octagonal turrets at the angles, supported with corbels, and terminating in ornamental pinnacles; the height from the ground to the gable top is 42 feet 6 inches, to the top of the pinnacle 46 feet 3 inches, and to the top of the pinnacles on the angles 39 feet; the breadth of each of these compartments is 16 feet 8 inches. The compartment to each end is 34 feet 6 inches high to the top of the battlements; to the top of the turrets on the external angles 34 feet 8 inches, to the gable top 42 feet 6 inches, and to the top of the pinnacles 45 feet 9 inches; the breadth of the end compartments are each 22 feet 10 inches. The height from the ground to the top of the roof is 41 feet 4 inches, and from the ground to the top of the chimney stalks 47 feet 9 inches. The entrance to the Porch is 6 feet wide, and 13 feet 6 inches high from the ground to the top of the soffit of the arch; the height of the Porch from the ground to the top of the enriched battlements is 19 feet, and from the ground to the top of the finials, on the octagonal buttresses, 25 feet; its breadth, including the octagonal buttresses, is 12 feet 10 inches. The entrance within the Porch is 4 feet 6 inches wide, raised 2 feet 6 inches above the level of the ground, ascended by 5 steps, two of which are above the level of the floor in the Porch; the door is 8 feet 3 inches high to the under side of the transom, between the door and fanlight; the transom is 8 inches thick, and the fanlight 1 foot 7 inches high to the top of the soffit of the arch. The side light on each side of the entrance door is 13 inches wide, by 7 feet 6 inches high to the top of the soffit of the arch. The central windows on the ground floor, on each side of the Porch, are 10 feet high, by 6 feet 9 inches wide, each being divided into six compartments by two mullions, and a transom 5½ inches thick. The top of each window is crowned with a tablet, which reaches 2 feet 5 inches below the top of the window. The oriel windows on the ground floor are both of the same dimensions, each being 20 feet 3 inches high from the level of the ground to the top of the battlements; the central part of the window is divided into two compartments, each 2 feet 4 inches wide, by 10 feet 8 inches high, to the top of the soffit of the arch; each of the diagonal openings is 1 foot 8 inches wide in the clear of the reveals, and 10 feet 8 inches high to the top of the soffit of the arch. The oriel window over the Porch on the chamber floor is corbeled out from the wall; its height from the ground to the window sill is 20 feet 6 inches, and from the ground to the top of the battlements 32 feet 9 inches; the central part of the window is divided into four compartments, by a mullion and transom 5½ inches thick, each compartment being 1 foot 7 inches wide, by 4 feet high, from the sill to the under side of the transom, and 3 feet 6 inches from the upper side of the transom to the top of the soffit of the arch; each of the diagonal openings is 10 inches wide in the clear of the reveals, divided by transoms the same as in the central part. The other windows on the chamber floor are 20 feet 9 inches from the ground, - those in the central part, on each side of the oriel window, are divided into two compartments, each 2 feet wide, by 7 feet 10 inches high, crowned with tablets, which reach 1 foot 6 inches below the top of the window. The window over the oriel window, at each end, is divided into three compartments by mullions 1 foot 2 inches thick; the central division being subdivided by a mullion 5½ inches thick, into two compartments, each 1 foot 10 inches wide, by 7 feet 10 inches high; the side divisions are each 1 foot 2 inches wide by 6 feet 2 inches high. The top of each window is crowned with a tablet, which reaches 1 foot 6 inches below the top of the window. The windows on the Attic floor are 33 feet from the ground; the one over the oriel window is 1 foot 10 inches wide, by 3 feet high to the top of the soffit of the arch. The other two are both of the same dimensions, each being divided into three compartments, by mullions 10 inches thick; the centre division is 2 feet wide, by 4 feet high, and each of the side divisions is 8 inches wide, by 3 feet high. The water tables over these windows reach 8 inches below the top of the window.

Villa in the Gothic Style, 1845.
Part II: Chamber Floor, Back Elevation, Details and Plan of Roof.

CHAMBER FLOOR PLAN AND BACK ELEVATION.- The space marked A, on the Plan, represents a Bed-room, 19 feet 6 inches, by 18 feet; height of ceiling 11 feet 6 inches. B, Bed-Room, 15 feet 8 inches, by 14 feet; height 11 feet 6 inches. C, Dressing-room, 12 feet 10 inches, by 11 feet 10 inches, exclusive of the bay, 6 feet 8 inches, by 2 feet 10 inches; height 11 feet 10 inches. D, Bed-Room,, 15 feet 8 inches, by 14 feet 8 inches; height 11 feet 10 inches; this room may be used as a Dressing-room, if required. E, Bed-Room, 20 feet, by 18 feet; height 11 feet 6 inches. F, Bed-Room,, 19 feet 9 inches, by 16 feet 3 inches; height 11 feet 6 inches. G, Dressing-Room, 13 feet 3 inches, by 12 feet; height 11 feet 6 inches. H, Bath-Room, 16 feet by 9 feet, and 11 feet high; the floor of this room is raised 6½ inches above the level of the passage. K, Nursery, 17 feet 8 inches, by 12 feet; height of ceiling 10 feet 10 inches. L, Bed-Room,, 16 feet 3 inches, by 11 feet 8 inches; height 10 feet 10 inches. M, Water-Closet, 9 feet 4 inches, by 4 feet 9 inches; height of ceiling 11 feet 6 inches. N, Water-Closet,, 4 feet 8 inches, by 4 feet; height 10 feet. O, Closet, 7 feet by 6 feet, and 11 feet 6 inches high. P, Passage, from the Staircase to the Bed-room A, 15 feet long, by 5 feet wide; height 11 feet 6 inches. R, Passage, leading from the passage P, 8 feet 6 inches long, by 4 feet 8 inches wide; height 11 feet 6 inches. S, Passage, from the Staircase to the Bed-room E, 15 feet 9 inches long, by 5 feet wide, and 11 feet 6 inches high. T, Passage, from the back Staircase to the passage S, the length of this passage, from the Staircase to the first archway, is 5 feet; width 4 feet 2 inches, and the length betwixt the archways is 10 feet 10 inches, by 5 feet 10 inches; height 10 feet 10 inches; this floor is 3 feet 3 inches below the level of the passage S; the length, from the second archway to the passage S, is 13 feet 3 inches, by 4 feet 2 inches wide; there are 6 steps in this part of the passage; rise 6½ inches, breadth of tread 9½ inches. U, Principal Staircase, 19 feet 10 inches, by 13 feet; height of ceiling from stair landing, 11 feet 6 inches; breadth of landing 6 feet. V, Back Staircase, 10 feet 4 inches, by 8 feet 6 inches; height of ceiling from stair landing 10 feet 10 inches; breadth of landing 4 feet. W, Stair, leading to the Attic floor, to be carried over the passage T; length of steps 3 feet 3 inches, breadth 9 inches, rise 7 inches, lighted by a roof light, 4 feet 9 inches long, by 2 feet 3 inches wide.

BACK ELEVATION.- The whole extent of the Back Elevation is 89 feet 6 inches. The wing to the left is 32 feet 6 inches wide, and 32 feet 9 inches high from the ground to the top of the battlements, and 41 feet 4 inches high to the ridge of the roof. The windows on the ground floor are 10 feet 3 inches high, by 4 feet 9 inches wide, each being divided into four compartments by a mullion and transom, 5½ inches thick. The top of each window is crowned with a tablet, which reaches 2 feet below the top of the window. The windows on the chamber floor are 20 feet 9 inches from the ground, their height is 7 feet, and width 4 feet. The wing to the right is 30 feet 2 inches wide, and 34 feet 6 inches high from the ground to the gable top; and to the top of the chimney stalk 40 feet 2 inches, to the top of the side walls 25 feet 3 inches, and to the ridge of the roofs over the windows to the right hand 28 feet 4 inches, and to the left 30 feet. The windows on the ground floor are 7 feet 10 inches high, the one in the centre is 3 feet 9 inches wide, the other two are blank windows, each 2 feet 4 inches wide. The top of each window is crowned with a tablet, which reaches 1 feet 9 inches below the top of the window. The windows on the chamber floor are 17 feet 6 inches from the ground, their height is 6 feet, and the width of the one in the centre is 3 feet 6 inches, the other two being 2 feet 2 inches; these windows are blank. The gable top, which stands behind the wing to the right, is 26 feet 9 inches wide, and 41 feet 4 inches high to the top of the roof, and 47 feet 3 inches high from the ground to the top of the chimney stalks. The recesses, terminating at the top with Gothic heads, are 3 feet high, by 6 inches wide. The central compartment or staircase is 13 feet 9 inches from the level of the ground, its height is 14 feet 9 inches, width 9 feet 6 inches, divided into six compartments by two mullions, 11 inches thick, anbd transoms 5½ inches thick. The dormer window over the staircase is 4 feet high, by 3 feet 2 inches wide, its roof being 6 feet 3 inches above the top of the battlements. The dormer window, on the wing to the left, is of the same dimensions. The window on the ground floor between the staircase and wing to the right, is 8 feet 9 inches high, by 2 feet 4 inches wide. The one on the chamber floor is 20 feet 9 inches from the ground; height 7 feet, width 2 feet 2 inches. The dormer window, over this window, is 4 feet high, by 2 feet 2 inches wide, and 6 feet from the top of the battlements to the ridge of its roof. The dormer window on the wing to the right, is of the same size. The turrets on the external angles are the same as those described on the Front Elevation.


DETAILS.- The drawing marked A, is part of an elevation of the Porch on the Elevation [First picture, Part I] showing the form of the mouldings, tracery, and other ornaments. The part of the entrance door shown gives the form of one of the upper pannels; it is divided by a mullion into two compartments, terminating at the top with Gothic heads, filled in with cusps. It is intended that the arrowlets in the octagonal buttresses be cut through, and also the pannels in the enriched battlements. The drawing marked B, is part of the plan of the Porch, showing part of the entrance door, side lights, and inside finishing. The small columns, placed in the openings on the flanks, to be finished with bases and capitals, to the same height as those in front; the openings to terminate with trefoil arches, surmounted by a main arch and spandrels similar to the front. The cornice and battlements on the flanks to be the same as in front, with the exception of the escutcheon. The drawing marked C, shows part of the frieze and cornice over the oriel windows on the ground floor. The cusped pannels in the frieze are called by the name of quartrefoils. The drawing marked D, shows part of the frieze and cornice over the oriel window above the Porch. The pannels in the frieze are called trefoils. The drawing marked E, is a section of the cornice, and part of the frieze C. The cornice for D is the same, with the exception of the first member, and the moulding in the pannels of the frieze, which is smaller.


PLAN OF ROOF.- In order to make the drawing as comprehensive as possible, the Plan is arranged in such a manner as to show one-half of the roof finished, and the other half in the naked rafters; the space between the rafters is 1 foot 3 inches. The wall plates are 11 inches broad, and 1½ inches thick. The roofs of the dormer windows are supported by trimmers, properly framed into the rafters; the perpendicular spaces on the front and sides of those windows may be finished with wood, or lath and plaster, with mastic on the outside, so as to correspond with the stone walls. The form of the chimney stalks, gutters, and platforms, will be understood by the drawing. The water may be carried from the roof by cast-iron pipes, built into the walls. Great attention should be paid to roofs, in having the gutters and other receptacles for water properly arranged, so that they may not be liable to be choked up, as the comfort and stability of the building depends greatly on the walls being kept dry.


Figure 1, represents the elevation of a part of the roof, on the back wing to the left hand, showing its height from the upper side of the joists to the platform, also the rafters, forming part of the octagonal part of the roof, and likewise the framing of the dormer window; the sill of the dormer window is 1 foor 2 inches broad, by 3 inches thick; the upright standards or jambs in front are 8 inches broad, by 3½ inches thick, the lintel 9 inches deep, by 4½ inches thick, and the rafters are 5 inches broad, by 2 inches thick.

Figure 2, represents the plan of the octagonal part of the roof, showing the method of finding the length of the different rafters, and likewise the different bevels. A, B, and C, on the Plan, show the rafters on the central part of the octagon; the line A, B, being equal to the perpendicular height from the ridge of the roof to the seat of the rafter, and B, C, equal to the distance from the bottom of the perpendicular line to the extremity of the seat on the wall plate, join A, C; and the line thus joined, is the length from the ridge of the roof to the wall plate. The lines drawn perpendicular from the seat of the jack rafters, on the hips, give the length of the different rafters required, and also the bevels at top and bottom for cutting the joints. B D E, on the Plan, show the rafters on the diagonal sides of the octagon; the line B D being equal to the perpendicular height of the roof, and B E equal to the distance from the bottom of the perpendicular line to the extremity of the seat on the wall plate; join D E, which gives the length from the ridge to the wall plate. The lines drawn perpendicular from the seat of the jack rafters on the hip and valley rafter, give the different lengths required, and also the bevels at top and bottom for cutting the joints. F G H, on the Plan, show the rafters on the square part of the roof, the line F G being equal to the perpendicular height of the roof; G H, equal to the distance from the bottom of the perpendicular line to the extremity of the seat on the wall plate, join F H, which gives the length of the rafters on the square part of the roof; the length of the jack rafters is found by perpendicular lines drawn from the seat on the hip and valley rafter, and also the different bevels required for cutting the joints.

Figure 3, represents the elevation of one half of the octagonal part of the roof, the other half of the drawing shows the form of the couples on the square part of the roof, and also a side view of the framing of the dormer window.

Figure 4, represents the plan of the octagonal part of the roof, and shows the method of finding the lengths of the hip and valley rafters, also the various bevels, and backing of the hips. A B C, on the Plan, shows one of the rafters on the square part of the roof, with the seat of the sill and lintel of the dormer window marked by dotted lines. D E F, on the Plan, shows the method of finding the length of the hip rafters on the octagonal part of the roof, draw D E perpendicular to D F, make D E equal to the height of the roof, join E F, which gives the length of the hip required. G H I is the hip rafter on the square part of the roof, the length of it is found by the same rule as the former. To find the backing of the hips.-From any point in I G, draw a b perpendicular to I G, cutting the line at the extremity of the seats of the bottom of the rafters in a c and b c, then a b c will be the angle required. The backing of the hip rafter E F is shown on the drawing in the same manner. The method of finding the side bevels on the different rafters, is shown on the drawing by bevels applied to the various joints.

Villa in the Gothic Style, 1845.
Part III: Details of Library, Section and Details, and Details.

DETAILS OF LIBRARY.- The drawing marked A, is part of the elevation of the bookcases and one of the library doors, and also part of the plaster cornice. The door is 8 feet high, by 3 feet 9½ inches wide. The small quatrefoil panels in the lock rails are sunk ½ and inch with a cavetto and fillet moulding. The form of the other panels and mouldings will be understood vy the drawing. The frieze over the door is supported by ornamental corbels, the spaces between them being paneled, as shownb on the drawing. The lower part ot the bookcase is divided into two compartments by a pilaster 4¼ inches broad; each compartment is shut in by folding doors, 1 foot 11 inches high, by 1 foot 3½ inches wide in the clear of the bead on the shutting joint. The shelf over the lower part of the bookcase rests on the pilasters, and small corbels placed between them. The upper part of the bookcase is divided into two compartments by a three quarter column, 3½ inches diameter, finished with a moulded base, and ornmental capital. The doors are 6 feet 1 inch high, and 2 feet 6 inches wide; the form of the Gothic tops and cusping of the doors are shown on the drawing. Should glass be thought too expensive, the same form of door may be equally well adapted for cloth or trelles work. The form of the frieze, cornice, embrasures, and other ornamental parts, will be best understood by the drawing. The plaster cornice is 2 feet 1 inch on the wall, and 1 foot 4 inches on the ceiling. It is intended that the ceiling be formed into panels, by mouldings on the surface, as shown on the drawing. The drawing marked B, shows the plan of the upper part of the bookcase, and also the plan of the door and door finishing. The door stiles are 5 inches broad in the clear of the moulding, by 2¼ inches thick; the panels are 7¾ inches broad between the mouldings, by ⅝ of an inch thick. The mouldings are 3⅛ inches thick, by 2¼ inches broad, grooved on the inner edge, so as to receive the panels, and on the outer edge, so as to receive the stiles. In making doors on this principle, the mouldings are joined round the panels, the mitres being properly secured by screw nails; the framing is tongued, so as to correspond with the outer edge of the mouldings; then the moulded panels are put into the door in the same manner as common panels. This method, although more expensive, is much preferable for hardwood or even fir doors, where a good finish is required; the mouldings are njot so liable to warp as when planted on the panels, not are there any nails required, which always give a bad appearance to hardwood doors. The method of framing the pilasters and bookcase will be understood by the drawing; and the various dimensions will be ascertained by the scale. The drawing marked C, is a section of the bookcase and plaster cornice. The section of the lower part of the bookcase is cut through the centre of one of the doors. The door framing is 4 inches broad in the clear of the mouldings, by 1½ inches thick; the panels are ⅞ of an inch thick, kept flush with the inside of the framing. The small pilasters project 1¼ inch in front of the doors, and the large pilasters 3 inches. The section of the upper part of the bookcase is cut through the centre of one of the sash doors; the framing is 3 inches broad, by ¾ inch thick. The columns project 2⅝ inches in front of the sash doors, and the pilaster 4¾ inches. The shelves are 1⅛ inches thick, by 12 inches broad; the bearers for supporting the shelves can be place in the racks at ny height, to correspond with the size of the books; and in order to deep the bearers from falling out of the racks, the shelf is checked down ⅛ of an inch on them. The drawing marked D, is part of the plan of the lower part of the bookcase.

SECTION AND DETAILS.- In order to make the Section as easily understood as possible, I shall point out in what direction the Section line cuts the various apartments on each floor. On the sunk floor it passes through the cellars, in a line perpendicular with the section line on the principal floor; the apartments shown on the section being all dark, can be only used as beer or spirit cellars. The doors are 7 feet 4 inches high, by 3 feet wide; the floors are paved with stone; the foot base, door jambs, and soffits, are also stone. The form of the brick arches are represented on the drawing. The Section on the principal floor, PLATE XIX., is cut through the centre of the Dining-room B, and Library C, runing on a straight line through the rooms D and E, diverging to the centre of the vestibule N. The section of the Dining-room B, shows the sleeper joists, foot base, dado lining, chimney-piece, doors, and window finishing, plater cornice, and ceiling. The sleeper joists are 8 inches deep, by 2½ inches tick. The foot base is 1 foot high, including the moulding; the dado lining is 1 foot 10 inches high from the top of the base to the underside of the surbase, and from the floor to the top of the surbase 3 feet 3 inches. The window breasts are 2 feet high above the floor, the shutters show one panel in front, cusped at the top, but the back is divided into four panels, by rails dovetailed into the back of the panel. The doors are 8 feet high, by 3 feet 10 inches wide, finished with architraves and embattled cornices. The chimney-piece is 3 feet 6 inches wide in the clear, and 5 feet 6 inches wide over the jambs, by 3 feet 6 inches high in the clear, and 4 feet 9 inches high to the top of the shelf. The plaster cornice is 11 inches deep from the underside of the beams; the beams are 1 foot broad, and the panels are 4½ inches sunk. The section of the Ante-room D, shows the door, foot base, and plaster cornice. The foot base, including the upper fascia, is 1 foot 8 inches high; the door is 8 feet high, by 3 feet 8 inches wide. The plaster cornice, including the frieze, is 1 foot 2 inches on the wall, and 8 inches on the ceiling. The section of the Vestibule N, shows the foot base, entrance to the staircase, groined ceiling, and part of the stair and staircase window. The foot base is 1 foot 6 inches high, including the upper fascia; the foot base in the vestibule, staircase, and passages, should be stone. The entrance to the staircase is 5 feet 6 inches wide, and 11 feet 6 inches high, from the floor to the top of the soffet of the arch; the archway is finished with small columns, crowned with ogee canopies, supported on ornamental corbels. The groined ceiling is 15 feet high from the foor to the centre of the arch, and 11 feet 9 inches at the sprint. The section of the Parlour E, show the foot base, door, and plaster cornice. The foot base, including the upper fascia, is 1 foot 8 inches high; the door is 8 feet high, by 3 feet 8 inches wide; the plaster cornice, including the frieze, is 1 foot 6 inches on the wall, and 9 inches on the ceiling. The section of the Library C, shows the sleeper joists, foot base, section of the chimney-piece, bookcase, door and window finishing, and plaster cornice. The sleeper joists and window finishing are the same as those described for the Dining-room B; and the door, bookcase, and plaster cornice, are detailed, PLATE XXIII. The foot base is 10 inches high, including the moulding; the chimney-piece is 3 feet 3 inches high in the clear, and 4 feet 9 inches high to the top of the shelf. The joists over the Library are 9 inches deep, by 2½ inches thick, supported by cast-iron beams, 10½ inches deep, by 1¾ inch thick, with flanges on each side, on which the ceiling joists are hung; the ceiling joists are 5 inches deep, by 1¾ inch thick. The joists over the Dining-room are 9 inches deep, by 2½ inches thick, supported on truss-beams 1 foot deep, by 8 inches thick; the ceiling joists are hung; the ceiling joists are 4 inches deep, by 1¾ inch thick, jung from the floor joists in a transverse direction. The joists over the other apartments on the principal floor, are 11 inches deep, by 2½ inches thick, placed 1 foot 3½ inches apart. The section of the Chamber floor, PLATE XX., is cut in a straight line through the centre of the Bed-rooms A and E. The section of the Bed-room E, shows the foot base, door and window finishing, chimney-piece, and plaster cornice. The foot base is 1 foot 4 inches high, including the upper fascia; the doors are 7 feet 6 inches high, by 3 feet 3 inches wide; the window breasts are 2 feet high above the floor; the chimney-piece is 3 feet wide in the clear, and 5 feet wide over the jambs, by 3 feet high in the clear, and 4 feet 4 inches high to the top of the shelf; the plaster cornice is 10 inches on the wall, and 5 inches on the ceiling. The doors, foot base, and other finishing in the Bed-rooms B, C, D, are all of the same dimensions. The foot base is 1 foot high, including the moulding; the doors are 7 feet 6 inches high, by 3 feet 3 inches wide. The plaster cornice in the room B, is 9 inches on the wall, and 6 inches on the ceiling; in the room C, it is 10 inches on the wall, and 6 inches on the ceiling; and in the room D, it is 11 inches on the wall, and 5 inches on the ceiling. The various parts of finishing shown on the section of the Bed-room A, are of the same dimensions as that described in the Bed-room E. The joists over the Bed-room floor, are 10 inches deep, by 2½ inches thick, placed 1 foot 3½ inches apart. The Section through the rooms on the Attic floor, and also through the roof, runs on a line perpendicular with the section line on the Chamber floor. The finishings in the various rooms shown on the Attic floor, are all of the same dimensions. The doors are 6 feet 8 inches high, by 2 feet 11 inches wide; the foot base is 8 inches high; the window breasts are 2 feet high above the floor, and the windows are 4 feet high in the clear, and 3 feet 10 inches high to the top of the shelf, by 2 feet 8 inches wide in the clear, and 4 feet 2 inches wide over the jambs. The ridge boards shown in the roof are 1 foot deep, by 1½ inch thick. The camber or platform joists are 1 foot deep, by 2½ inches thick, placed 1 foot 3½ inches apart; the rafters are 9½ inches deep at the bottom, and 8 inches at the top, by 2¼ inches thick; the baulks are 6 inches deep, by 2 inches thick.

DETAILS.- The drawing marked A, is part of an elevation of the inside of the staircase window on the Elevation, PLATE XX., showing the form of the tracery and finishing. The sash-frame is divided into two compartments by a stile which forms the top into two trefoil arches, the part of the mullions which branch off to each side, form the compartments between the mullions into quartrefoil arches, being the form of the stone on the outside. The lining of the window jamb is shown by dotted lines. The drawing marked B, is part of the plan of the window, showing the form of the stone mullions, also the sash-frame and inside mullions; the method of framing the wood finishing will be understood by the drawing, and the different sizes will be ascertained by the scale.

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European Villa House Plan Collection
Rural Architecture: Ornamental Cottages and Villas
by John White, 1845
and
Loudon's Book 3.1, Villas, 1834
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